35 Emissions occur when they are released into the atmosphere (e.g., from fire extinguishers or aerosol cans) or when they leak out of equipment such as refrigerators and air conditioning units.
36 Significant New Alternatives Policy. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/snap/global-emissions-substitutes-ozone-depleting-substances
37 The 1987 Montreal Protocol aimed to protect the Earth’s ozone layer by phasing out Ozone-Depleting Substances, but increased utilization of substitutes for ODS have resulted in an unintentional growth of GHG emissions. See: United Nations Environmental Program (2016). Treaties—The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Available at: https://ozone.unep.org/treaties/montreal-protocol/amendments/kigali-amendment-2016-amendment-montreal-protocol-agreed
38 The Kigali Amendment (adopted in 2016 and entered into force in January 2019) to the Montreal Protocol aims to address the emissions problem that substitutes of ODS have presented by phasing down global production of these substances and creating market certainty to allow growth of more environmentally friendly alternatives. President Biden announced plans to ratify the Kigali agreement in April 2021, and it was ratified in September 2022.
39 While the Kigali agreement could help shape markets for these substances to reduce GHG emissions, at the state level, California has a number of programs aimed at reducing emissions from these substances as outlined in the 2017 Short-Lived Climate Pollutant Reduction Strategy. See: Short-Lived Climate Pollutant Reduction Strategy from March 2017. California Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board. Available at: https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/sites/default/files/2020-07/final_SLCP_strategy.pdf
40 The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 34 assign refrigerant designations. Available at: https://www.ashrae.org/technical-resources/standards-and-guidelines/ashrae-refrigerant-designations
41 GWP values are based on AR4 100-year GWP values. A list of refrigerants and the associated GWPs are available at California ARB’s webpage on High-GWP Refrigerants: https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/resources/documents/high-gwp-refrigerants
42 McKenna, Phil. Senate Votes to Ratify the Kigali Amendment, Joining 137 Nations in an Effort to Curb Global Warming. Inside Climate News. Sept. 24, 2022.