General References

Inflation Adjustment

Inflation-adjusted figures are converted into current dollars using the U.S. city average Consumer Price Index (CPI) of all urban consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. For state level comparisons, inflation-adjusted figures are converted into current dollars based on state-specific deflators, published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Gross Domestic Product

Nominal gross domestic product (GDP) data for California, U.S. states and the U.S. are sourced from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Country and state GDP are at market prices in current 2021 dollars, expressed per U.S. dollar, unless otherwise noted, from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators. Gross Domestic Product by State is also referred as Gross State Product (GSP).


Population data from California used to calculate per capita figures are from the California Department of Finance’s: E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties, and the State, with 2000, 2011, and 2021 Census Counts. U.S., state and “U.S. without California” population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Branch. Country population data are from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service, calculated from the Census Bureau International Population Database.

Carbon Economy

Global Fossil Fuel Combustion, Carbon Economy, and Emissions Per Capita in California and Other Regions

Data for carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of energy are from the U.S. Department of Energy – Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Statistics. State level emissions data come from EIA’s State CO2 Emissions. Data for carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of energy include emissions due to the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and also from natural gas flaring. Energy consumption data are based on the consumption of each primary energy source, and data are gathered from a variety of national and organization reports that collate data from energy users. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for each individual fuel by applying carbon emission coefficients to convert to MMTCO2e dioxide emitted per quadrillion BTU of fuel consumed. Calculations used GDP and Population data where applicable, as described above.

Unless otherwise noted, emissions data only include energy-related emissions that result from consumption of fuels, and therefore do not include emissions from sources such as agriculture, waste combustion, and industrial gases, because it is the most up-to-date information available. While these other emissions are important to track and reduce, the Green Innovation Index focuses on energy emissions, given the importance of energy-related indicators and the availability of recent data. A comparison of World Resources Institute’s 2011 total world emissions data shows that energy-related emissions account for about 75 percent of global emissions. In addition, the ranking for the top emitters is similar when comparing total and energy-related emissions, and the rankings of the top six emitters are identical.

GHG Emissions and Gross Domestic Product, Total California Greenhouse Emissions, Emissions by Economic Sector, Emissions by AB 32 Climate Change Scooping plan, Emissions by Source, Emissions by Detailed Source Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data for these figures are from California Air Resources Board’s “California Greenhouse Gas Inventory – by Sector and Activity” (2023 Edition). The 1990–1999 emissions include “gross emissions” and the 2000–2021 emissions are “included emissions” only unless otherwise noted. Calculations used GDP and Population data where applicable, as described above.

Note: The California Green Innovation Index seeks to report the most accurate data available on California’s carbon economy, including updated estimates of historic emissions data. Historical data in the latest edition of the Index can sometimes conflict with previous edition, if data publishers revise their own estimates and methodology. The 2023 California Air Resources Board GHG Inventory features revised methodology, which result in data change for the years 2000-2020 in the 2023 Index. While these may conflict with previously published estimates, they represent the best available estimates as of December 2023. Please see the CARB’s Technical Documentation to find out more.

Disposal Rate

Data on waste disposal (landfilled or exported) in tons are from CalRecycle’s Disposal Reporting System. The Disposal Reporting System (DRS) is the set of guidelines that tracks the origin of waste disposed in California’s landfills, and waste sent from California to out-of-state landfills. DRS tracks disposal tonnages (including alternative daily cover (ADC), alternative intermediate cover (AIC), and beneficial reuse) and transformation sent to facilities in the state. Disposal and alternative daily cover (ADC) tonnage is subject to change due to revisions.

Transportation Fuel Consumption

Data on state-level transportation fuel consumption is compiled by the Alternative Fuel Data Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, based on the State Energy Data System from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Transportation fuel consumption is converted to Trillion British Thermal Units for the transportation sector. The following transportation fuel are converted: Petroleum products made from crude oil and from natural gas processing, including motor and aviation gasoline, distillate fuels (mostly diesel fuel), jet fuel, residual fuel oil, and propane, biofuels, natural gas, and electricity produced from many different energy sources.

Wildfire Emissions

Data on historic wildfire emissions (2000–2022) is provided by California Air Resources Board. Greenhouse gas emissions from wildfires are tracked separately when compared to anthropogenic sources due, in large part, to carbon cycling. Current estimates of wildfire emissions for 2022 comes from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Wildfire emissions are displayed using the 100-year global warming potential horizon.

Special Topic: Decarbonizing Concrete

Data and Modeling

Data on overall cement plant emissions was sourced from CARB’s facility emissions dataset. Cement usage by type was sourced using the Portland Cement Association’s cement Apparent Use proprietary dataset. It is assumed that all cement used in the state is manufactured within the state; actual totals likely exhibit some cross-border exchange with other states, but an overwhelming portion (95%+) should be manufactured and used within California. Projections for future use assume fairly linear trends, integrated with a drop-off reflecting the end of the viability of IIJA and IRA funds for infrastructural purposes. The model also employs Beacon Economics’ proprietary projections for housing construction.

Reductions in emissions per ton of cement are modelled using a negative logistic curve model, with various rates of adoption between uses, as explained in the main body of the chapter.


Emissions, Surface Transportation, Vehicle Miles Traveled

Total Vehicles and GHG Emissions from Surface Transportation and Vehicle Miles Traveled CARB’s “California Greenhouse Gas Inventory – by Sector and Activity.” Surface Transportation emissions sources include passenger vehicles, motorcycles, and light and heavy-duty trucks. Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) is defined as total distance traveled by all vehicles during a selected time period in geographic segment. VMT estimates for 1995–2007 are from the California Department of Transportation’s “2008 California Motor Vehicle Stock, Travel and Fuel Forecast.” VMT data for 2008 to current are from the California Department of Transportation’s Highway Performance Monitoring System’s “California Public Road Data.” Calculations use Population data sources where applicable.

New Light Vehicle Registrations

Data for new light vehicle registrations in California are from California New Car Dealers Association’s Quarterly California Auto Outlook, which are sourced from IHS Markit and Experian. Light Vehicles include cars and light trucks. Cars are comprised of the following categories: subcompact, compact, sports/pony cars, mid-size, large, entry luxury, near luxury, luxury and high-end sports cars. Light trucks are comprised of the following categories: compact/mid-size pickup, full size pickup, minivan, large van, subcompact SUV, compact SUV, mid-size SUV, large SUV, luxury subcompact SUV, luxury compact SUV, luxury mid-size SUV and luxury large SUV.

Alternative Vehicle Registrations

Data is from the California Energy Commission (CEC), compiled using vehicle registration data by fuel type from the California Department of Motor Vehicles. Alternative fuel types include all hybrid (gasoline and diesel), electric, plug-in hybrid, hydrogen, propane, biofuels, and natural gas vehicles. Zero-emission fuel-types include electric, plug-in hybrid, and hydrogen.

Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Data on alternative fueling stations, which encompasses electric vehicle charging stations, are from Alternative Fuel Data Center, U.S. Department of Energy. The data in the Alternative Fueling Station Locator are gathered and verified through a variety of methods. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) obtains information about new stations from trade media, Clean Cities coordinators, a Submit New Station form on the Station Locator website, and through collaborating with infrastructure equipment and fuel providers, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and industry groups.

Public Transit Ridership

Unlinked Passenger Trips: Data uses monthly American Public Transportation Association (APTA) data for the transit component of Transportation Safe Institute (TSI) for years prior to 2010, and data from FTA (Federal Transit Administration)’s NTD (National Transit Database) for 2010 and beyond. FTA is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation. The number of unlinked passenger trips is the measure used for the TSI. Transit modes, include, among others, bus, trolleybus, vanpool, jitney, and demand response service; and heavy rail transit, light rail transit, commuter rail (including Amtrak contract commuter service), automated guideway transit, inclined plane, cable car, monorail, aerial tramway, and ferryboat. Monthly data is reported to NTD by transit agencies.

Clean Vehicles Rebate Program

The CVRP (Clean Vehicle Rebate Project) rebate data offers insights into the distribution of rebates among various types of electric vehicles. It includes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), other electric vehicles, and fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). PHEVs are characterized by their ability to operate on both electricity and gasoline, while BEVs rely solely on battery power. FCEVs utilize fuel cells powered by hydrogen. Other electric vehicles include non-highway BEVs, highway-capable zero-emission motorcycles, and city & commercial zero-emission vehicles.

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy Generation

Data for total electricity generation and renewable electricity generation by source are from the U.S. Department of Energy – EIA, International Energy Statistics. Data are for both utility and non-utility sources, and are reported as net generation (as opposed to gross generation). Renewable electricity data are for non-hydroelectric renewable, including geothermal, solar, tide, wave, wind, biomass and waste.

California renewable energy data is from the California Energy Commission, “Net System Power Reports” 2002–2022, Total System Power in Gigawatt Hours (GWh). U.S. data in the California section on total electricity generation data is from
the U.S. Department of Energy, EIA, Electric Power Monthly reports. Annual totals from “Table 1.1 Net Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors),” and “Table 1.1.A. Net Generation by Other Renewables: Total (All Sectors).” Because of different renewable energy definitions between California and the U.S., data represented for the U.S. do not include any hydro.

New Solar Installations, New Solar Installations by Sector

Solar capacity installed data are provided by Solar Energy Industries Association® (SEIA) and California Solar Initiative. SEIA data were taken from the U.S. Solar Market Insight Reports, 2007–2023. California Solar Initiative (CSI) data include municipal utility, and other utility-scale installations and Net Energy Metering (NEM) Interconnection Data.

Self-Generation Incentive Program

The CPUC’s Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) provides incentives to support existing, new, and emerging distributed energy resources (DERs). DERs—which are defined as distribution-connected distributed generation resources, energy efficiency, energy storage, electric vehicles, and demand response technologies—play an important role in identifying optional portfolios of resources under the State’s integrated resource plan (IRP), as specified in Public Utilities Code §454.51 and §454.52. For the SGIP program, all sectors are eligible. Most of the rebates are issued to customers in the residential sector that have advanced storage system (e.g., electrochemical storage) as an eligible DER. The data was retrieved from the monthly updated SGIP interconnection application database and is current as of 2023 and is based on SGIP applications with the status “Incentive Claim Form Pending Payment”, “Payment PBI in Process”, or “Payment Completed”.

Note: Any institution that would otherwise be eligible for funding through the California Clean Energy Jobs Act (Proposition 39), or a college or university accredited to operate in California are considered as Educational Institution. Non-profit refers to an organization that is registered and in good standing with the California Secretary of State as a domestic non-profit entity.

Wind Installations

Wind capacity installed and cumulative data are provided by the American Wind Energy Association. Data is taken from quarterly and annual U.S. Wind Industry Market Reports, 2006–2023.

RPS Position of Community Choice Aggregations

Data on the annual renewable portfolio standards (RPS) position of community choice aggregations (CCAs) come from the California Public Utility Commission’s annual RPS report to the legislature, which is based on the CCA draft RPS procurement plans submitted to the CPUC.

Integrated Resource Plan

Data on the integrated resource plan (IRP) scenarios comes from the 2021 unified resource adequacy (RA) and IRP modeling datasets hosted on the California Public Utility Commission’s (CPUC’s) website. The unified modeling input datasets and scenarios are used by Energy Division of the CPUC to model the electric and gas system, typically in support of the Resource Adequacy (RA) and Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) proceedings. The production cost model used by Energy Division is the SERVM model developed by Astrape Consulting.

Energy Storage

Data on energy storage projects in California comes from the Department of Energy’s OE Global Energy Storage Database, hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and is current as of September 2021. The data is reported based on Rated Power, which defined as “The power performance of the energy storage system for a particular application.”

Interconnected Queue Added Capacity

Data on the Grid connected Capacity comes from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) generator interconnection queue, compiled from the project queue report. It only includes fully connected project capacity. Resource Interconnection Management System (RIMS) is the CAISO’s system for tracking several different interconnection processes at the CAISO. The reported capacity excludes energy only projects, and are predominantly deliverable. The power flow model submitted by the interconnection customer include all VAR devices in the generating plant. In addition, the capacity includes reactive capability curve(s) for the generating units. If multiple capability curves are provided, the intended operating conditions to determine the capability will be specified, based on the CAISO reporting requirement and study process. The data is current as of 2023.

Total Wait Time for Interconnection by Resource Type

The total wait time is time delta between the project application approved date and the project installation date, using the Data on the Grid connected Capacity comes from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) generator interconnection queue compiled from the project queue report.

Energy Efficiency

Energy Productivity and Energy Consumption Per Capita

Energy data are from the U.S. Department of Energy – EIA, International Energy Statistics and State Energy Data System. Data is for total primary energy consumption, in British Thermal Units (BTU), of petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, and net nuclear, hydroelectric, and non-hydroelectric renewable electricity. Energy productivity divides GDP by total energy consumption. Primary energy is in the form
that it is first accounted for in a statistical energy balance, before any transformation to secondary or tertiary forms of energy (for example, coal is used to generate electricity). Calculations used GDP and Population data where applicable, as described above.

Electricity Consumption per Capita

Electricity consumption data are from the U.S. Department of Energy – EIA, International Energy Statistics and State Energy Data System. For the United States, total electric power consumption is equal to the data in the Total column under End Use from Table 8.1 of the EIA’s Annual Energy Review. For all other countries except the United States, total electric power consumption is equal to total net electricity generation, plus electricity imports, less electricity exports and less electricity transmission and distribution losses. Data are reported as net consumption as opposed to gross consumption. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units. Calculations used Population data where applicable, as described above.

Statewide Residential Electricity Consumption Per Household

Statewide residential electricity consumption data are from the EIA, State Energy Data System. Household facts data are from American Community Survey (ACS) conducted annually by the U.S. Census Bureau. A sample of over 3.5 million housing unit addresses is interviewed each year over a 12- month period. This Fact (household estimate) is based on one year of ACS sample data and describes the value of person, household, and housing unit characteristics over this period of collection.

House Heating Fuel

Data on house heating fuel comes from the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Samples (ACS PUMS). The ACS PUMS is a publicly available dataset, published annually, that allows for custom tabulations. The solar adoption rate is calculated as the number of homes by county using solar adoption as share of total number of homes, at the Public Use Microdata Samples areas.

Local Ordinances exceeding 2022 Energy Code

Data on Local Ordinances exceeding 2022 Energy Code in California comes from the California Energy Commission, open data on city’s code of ordinances, collected and hosted by Building Decarbonization Coalition and is current as of 2023.

Clean Technology Innovation

Investment in Clean Technology

Clean technology investment data are provided by PitchBook Data, Inc. and includes disclosed investment deals in private companies. Data is through August 2023. VC data includes Seed, Later Stage, Early Stage, Accelerator/Incubator, and Grant deal types. Clean teach VC investment is divided into seven major segments: Built Environment, Carbon Tech, Energy Transition, Food Systems, Industry and Materials, Land Use, and Transportation and Mobility. Totals may not be the same across charts because of different investment types included. Dollar amounts are unadjusted for inflation (nominal).