Analysis by Beacon Economics
Approximate emissions to make one ton of conventional Portland cement.37

  • An overwhelming proportion of concrete’s CO2 emissions stem from the production of cement. Cement production releases emissions both through energy-intensive processes, which often require the burning of fossil fuels, and chemical reactions, namely calcination, which releases embodied carbon from limestone to form lime, a key component in conventional cement.

37 Czigler, T., Reiter, S., Schulze, P., & Somers, K. (2020, May 14). Laying the foundation for Zero-Carbon Cement. McKinsey & Company.