Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy; National Conference of State Legislatures; Virginia’s Legislative Information System 2020 Session. Analysis by Beacon Economics
Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy
  • Renewable or clean energy mandates are in effect in thirty states, Washington, D.C., and two territories, while another three states and one territory have established voluntary renewable energy objectives.
  • In 2022, California's AB 1279131 established a new goal to cut statewide GHG emissions by 85 percent from 1990 levels by 2045 (carbon neutrality). Senate Bill 100 requires the state to achieve 44 percent of retail sales from renewables by December 31, 2024, 52 percent by December 31, 2027, and 60 percent by December 31, 2030. In a similar vein, Maryland's SB 528132 established targets to lower GHG emissions by 60 percent (compared to a 2006 baseline) by 2031 and achieve net-zero emissions by 2045.
  • In 2022, Massachusetts built upon its 2021 climate legislation with H.B. 5060,133 which supported offshore wind development by eliminating price caps on new project electricity. Additionally, the legislation advanced transportation electrification by banning new gasoline/diesel vehicle sales post-2035. The bill also targeted building-related emissions, enabling municipalities to forbid fossil fuel hookups in new construction.

131 California Legislative Information. AB-1279 The California Climate Crisis Act. Released Sep 19 2022. Assessed Aug 22,2023. Available at:

132 Maryland General Assembly. Climate Solutions Now Act of 2022.SB0528. Released June 1, 2022. Assessed Aug 22, 2023. Available at:

133 Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Bill H.5060. Released July 21,2022. Assessed Aug 22,2023. Available at: